2 - Middle-Ages
The duchy of Naples
In the VI th century the city was withdrawn from Goths by the Byzantine empire during the attempt of Justinien to recreate the Empire. It becomes an autonomous duchy thereafter, under the jurisdiction of principle of Byzance.
Thanks to the perspicacity of its chiefs and its bishops, Naples resisted at the attempts conquests of behalf of Lombards, Franks and Buckwheats and was one of the last territories to fall in the hands of the Normans in 1137, when the Kingdom of Sicily was founded, with Palermo as capital. The city passed then to the svevi with Federico II, who, in 1224, founded the University there, the second of the peninsula.
At the time of the invasion of Naples by Lombards, the population was approximately 30.000-35.000 inhabitants. In 615, under Giovanni Consino, Naples rebelled for the first time against the power of Ravenne, the emperor in Italy. In answer, the first shape of duchy was created into 638 by the Eleutherius emperor, but this civil servant came from abroad and had to answer the strategos of Sicily. At this time the duchy of Naples included a sector corresponding today at the province of Naples, surrounding the Vesuvius sector, the Flegrei Camps, the Sorrentine peninsula, Giugliano, Aversa, Afragola, Nola and the islands of Ischia and Procida. Capri was part of the duchy of Amalfi.
In 661 Naples obtained from the emperor Constantin II, a local duke, Basilius, whose tender with the emperor became soon of pure form. In 763 the duke Stephen II changed allegiance from Constantinople to the pope. In 840 the duke Sergius I remade the succession of the hereditary duchy, and consequently Naples was in fact, completely independent.
At that time, the city was a military center, directed by an aristocracy of warriors and landowners, though it was obliged to return in Lombards neighbors much of its interior territory. Naples was not a commercial town as could be other seaboard towns of Campania like Amalfi and Gaeta, but had a sizeable fleet which took part in the battle of Ostia against Buckwheats in 849.
At all events Naples did not hesitate to combine with the inaccurate ones if this were in its advantage: in 836, for example, it asked the support of Buckwheats in order to push in addition to seat of the troops of Lombard coming from the duchy close to Benevento. After its dukes rose to highest prominence under the Athanasius Duke-Bishop and his successors, whose, Gregorio IV and John who took part in the battle of Garigliano in 915, Naples lost its importance at the tenth century until being captured by the hereditary rival, Pandulf IV of Capoue.
In 1027, the duke Sergius IV gave the county of Aversa to a band of Normans mercenaries carried out by Rainulf Drengot, of which it needed the support in the war against the principality of Capoue.
At this time, it did not think about the consequences, but this payment began a process which thereafter carried out to the end of the independence of Naples itself.
The last of the southernmost Italian states, in 1137 Sergius VII was forced to go to Roger II of Sicily, which was proclaimed king of Sicily seven years earlier. Under the new rules the city was managed by a compalazzo (account of palatine), with little independence left to the Neapolitan patriciat. For this period, Naples had a population of 30.000 inhabitants, but obtained his lift of the interior country: activities of trading were mainly deputy to the foreign people, mainly of Pisa and Genoa. Independently of the church of San Giovanni, the Norman buildings in Naples were mainly extensions, in particular castles (Castle of the egg, of Capoue), walls and enriched doors.
Normans, le Hohenstaufen and Anjou
Frederick II Hohenstaufen founded the university in 1224, considering intellectual Naples as capital while Palermo held its political role: this university remained single in Southern Italy during seven centuries.
After the defeat of the son of Frederick, Manfred, in Naples in 1266, the kingdom of Sicily was entrusted by the pope Clement IV to Charles of Anjou, which moved the capital from Palermo in Naples. He decided its new residence in the Nuovo Manor house, around whose a new zone was developed with the palates of the noble ones.
During its reign new Gothic churches were also built, including Santa Chiara, San Lorenzo Maggiore, Santa Maria Donna Regina and the cathedral.
In 1284, following the revolt of Sicilian Vespers, Angevins lost the insular part to the advantage of the Aragoneses. The two Kingdoms, naturally, were defined "of Sicily" and, in particular, on the continent was born the formula from "Sicily in on this side Headlight" (Naples) and "Sicily beyond the Headlight". (acting of the headlight of Messine). Or "kingdom of Naples" for continental part. The two parts formally remained separate until 1816, where under a single sovereign, formed the Kingdom of Two Siciles. The kingdom had certainly been divided into two halves, but Naples developed in an important way: The traders of Pisa and Genoa were joined by the bankers of Tuscany, and with them come exceptional artists like Boccaccio, Petrarque and Giotto.
The period of the Aragoneses
Alfonso, in 1442, conquered Naples after its victory against last king of Anjou, Rene, and makes his triumphal entry in the city in February 1443. The new dynasty increased the trade, connecting Naples to the Iberian peninsula and making in Naples a center of Italian Rebirth : the artists who worked there for this period include Francesco Laurana, Antonello Messine, Jacopo Sannazzaro and Angelo Poliziano.
The court also extended the possessions of nobility in the province, but in this way the cohesion of the city was reduced. After the short conquest by Charles VIII of France in 1485, the two kingdoms were joined together under the Spanish mode in 1501. In 1502 the Spanish General Gonzalo Fernández of Cordoue entered the city, beginning the two centuries of the mode of the almost omnipotent viceroy of Naples.
Spanish remained there until 1707. For the period of Spanish domination were born quarteras, better known today as District of the Spaniards and started to consolidate the role of the Camorra.