5 - Contemporary Time
In 1839, Naples was the first city in Italy to have a railroad, with the Napoli-Portici line. In spite of a small cultural rebirth and the proclamation of a constitution on June 25, 1860, the last years of the kingdom sees digging the abyss between the court and the intellectual class.
The 6th of September 1861, the kingdom was conquered by the partisans of Garibaldi and was given to the king of Sardinia: Garibaldi entered the city by the railroad, going down on the place which still celebrates today its name. In October 1860 a plebiscite sanctioned the end of the kingdom of Sicily and the birth of the state of Italy, in spite of a war of resistance of Neapolitan which lasted approximately a decade of resistance and armed robbery.
Sicily and Naples contributed to the new treasure of the state with 443 millions Lires, whereas all the other states gave only 224 millions.
The opening of the railroad and the funicular to go up to the Vesuvius was the occasion of writing of famous song of Funiculì Funiculà, one of the greatest song among the centuries of tradition of the Neapolitan song. Many Neapolitan songs are also famous outside Italy, such as for example "million single O", "Santa Lucia" and "Torna Surriento". The 7th April 1906 the Vesuvius neighbor burst, devastating Boscotrecase and damaging Ottaviano seriously.
In 1944 the activity began again with a spectacular eruption and devastations, images of this eruption were employed in the movie "the war of the worlds".
Losing its level of capital, the city remained in any event the center political, economic and social most important of the Southern Italy. With the passing of years, Naples started to have an important role even on the strategic and military level: becoming the port which forwardings for the overseas colonies left (Libya, Erythrea, Somalia, Dodecaneso and then Ethiopia) and becomes one of the most important ports of the Mediterranean.
Struck hard, like the other Italian cities, during the economic crisis of the post-war period (the first one), Naples was raised slightly during the Fascistic Dictatorship, but this ephemeric illusion collapsed with the entry of Italy Fascist in war, at the sides of Germany and Japan.
Half destroyed by english bombardments between 40 and 41 (which had in Malta a formidable strategic base), American enters in 42 and 43 (with the day before of the unloading of Lampedusa) and finally by those German in 43 and 45 (after the treaty of 8 th September which signed rendering with Anglo-American to flee then), Naples was the first Italian city to rise against the military occupation Nazis: in 4 days (September 28 - October 1, 1943), crowd rose against German, and when few days afterwards, the Anglo-American ones arrived downtown, they found it already free, and continued towards Rome.
At the end of the war, when it was a question of voting the passage of Monarchy (become now in the imaginary collective the symbol of Fascism) to the Republic, Naples lined up in favour of the first, not because still related to Fascism, but because a great part of the population was of class poor, and easily conditionnable by propaganda.
The fact is, that the Republic overcome, and without unspecified demonstration of dissension, much of the Neapolitan ones like Enrico Of Nicola, supported it, this last was even elected first president of the Republic.
After the Second World War, Naples had - like many of other Italian cities - an economic boom: construction trade, health, instruction, work. All brought back Naples to being the third Italian city after Rome and Milan, but in front of Turin, Genoa and Venice.
The boom however quickly died out, because of the corruption of the new republican governments, but especially because of Camorra, which had taken again the control of the city during 4 days, by blocking each whole free and civil development of the city.
"Out" of the political plays of Palates, which stopped punctually in Rome, Naples less and less felt the fear for the period of the "strategy of the terror", which terrorized the northern center of the country. During the earthquake of the Eighties, which destroyed almost whole Irpinia, Naples suffered from ebb of refugees, whom they complicated the already precarious demographic situation and town planner of the city, crammed and strangled roads narrow and unhealthy, old and unsuited, but almost protected were destruction since remained such.
Naples, in 1927, absorbed some close communities; the population in 1860 was 450.000, it climbed up to 1.250.000 in 1971, to go down again to approximately 1.000.000 in 2001. The organized crime is deeply implanted in Naples. Camorra, the gangs Neapolitan and the families, have a long history and are now more dangerous in Italy than the Maffia Sicilian.
In 2004, more than 120 people died in Naples in the massacres of Camorra, several of the deaths related to the traffic of drug. In the last years the city knew to react to the indifference of the central governments, which slowly gave up the south with its destiny, with the pressure of Camorra, the deficiency often even of the simplest rights, by counting only on it even, but it is indubitable that the problems are numerous and that they cannot disappear from one day to another.
In 2004, Naples received the competition of veil of the Cut of America, but the problems were such, that the organizers made so that the competition was moved in Valence.